How to write a dissertation conclusion :

Top tips on how to write a dissertation conclusion chapter :

Conclusion chapter is a chapter which represents all the decision of all chapter of a dissertation. Many people think that the concluding chapter is the last chapter and that is why this chapter includes everything, but it is wrong because this chapter contains many vital things and information. There is a confusion to write a conclusion of a dissertation. Every chapter has a separate conclusion section, but there also exists another chapter named conclusion. It proves that the chapter has enough importance and that is why this chapter is doing separately. This chapter also contains a section named recommendation. The recommendation is the section which includes a future expectation of any types of topic. The topic is related to the dissertation topic. This chapter also reminds the reader that what is the research is going on the whole dissertation. This chapter must keep a linked up with the other chapters such as introduction, literature review, methodology, and the data analysis. Every chapter has a different purpose, and this chapter indicates all different purpose into one container. This chapter also has the purpose. The two main purposes of this chapter are remembered the reader that is the topic research is going on and the purpose of each chapter. Various types of argument which are referred to the whole chapter are also included in this chapter. Evaluation from the whole dissertation and the interpretation is also mentioned in this chapter.

Future recommendation according to the opinion of the authors and future recommendation which are suggested into various resources according to different eminent people both are represented here. Risk factors and the warnings by that type of risk factors all are mentioned here. Types of conclusion in various types of the dissertation may vary sometimes. The dissertation may be based on qualitative data source otherwise it is a quantitative data source. When the dissertation is on the quantitative data source, then the conclusion structure is entirely different from the general version. The points which are included in this section are hypotheses the restatement, overall summarisation of the hypothesis which decides whether the authors support the hypothesis or not. This part has a linking with the content of the objectives. Explanation over the finding section is also described here. Various types of limitation are represented in this chapter. Therefore, the risks factors are also mentioned in it. In the short length of the dissertation conclusion and the recommendation combines and make a single chapter. However, in the long length dissertation there exist two separate chapters.

Recommendation only says about the practical perspective of the dissertation and the future opinion of the research. The conclusion chapter relates to the research questions and the findings of the research also. This chapter contains various section and the various section are the introductions, limitation of the study and the risk factors of that particular topic, recommendation from different professional authors are also represented here. Sometimes the author’s opinion is also required in this particular chapter. However, it varies because all dissertation requirements are not to write the self-reflection in the concluding chapter. Recommendation chapter is also discussed here for more information to the reader. This section must have an introduction part. After that, the total review of the dissertation is included. In the review section all subject behaviour, methods of the research, problems during data collection and the performance measurements all are represented in this section. Therefore it is seen that the conclusion and the recommendation chapter is not a matter of joke. This two chapter analyses and shows the total results and the future expectation of the whole research.

Again it is mentioned that a dissertation is generally two types one is qualitative, and another is quantitative. The quantitative type dissertation conclusion chapter is discussed now the qualitative type conclusion chapter will be represented. These types of dissertation conclusion contain the findings and the purpose of the research. It also decides about the relationship between the previous data. Various types of risks factors have occurred during the period of the research. This type of conclusion indicates the risk factors and the limitation of the research. Various types of criticism effects are represented here. Implementation problems are discussed here. These types of research recommendation include the future expectation of the research, about the policy of the research and the various types of action research. Sometimes the author’s contribution is also mentioned in this chapter. This is represented whether the requirement is that otherwise no need to discuss this section.  Self-reflection is must give in these types of conclusion chapter. Therefore it seems that the conclusion and the recommendation chapter is the equal importance as the literature review, methodology and the data analysis. Various researches have been done in any particular topic although there exists some gap in their research. This research gap needs to decrease, and that is why these two chapters discussed it.

Every dissertation has mainly six chapters, and every chapter has some general rules. These rules are maintained by the students who take part or create any types of the research paper. Information is collected from the various secondary data source, and therefore every source is m, cut included into the content. The journals from which the students take help must be downloaded as pdf format so that in their further research these crucial sources can help them. Referencing is done in various methods. It can be APA or can be Harvard referencing. However, every chapter of a dissertation follows a particular logic and rule, and that is why this logic has to maintain to get excellent quality content. Poor quality content is not acceptable to the students or any other resorts.

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How to write an Abstract for a Dissertation

Here are top tips on How to write an abstract for a dissertation :

Before discussing how to write an abstract, it is very much essential to know about the difference between abstract and the executive summary. Maximum students have confusion between two things; they think that these are the same, but it has to remember that they both have a different purpose. General is the overview of the entire paper, and executive summary means where the main vital points are sum up. Every dissertation contains the ideal part. This part must have some eye-catching capability because reader firstly read out the abstract of any dissertation then decide about whether it is exciting or not. Therefore a writer has to remember that it must be attractive and informative. However, it contains some critical parameters which are must be remembered by the writer while writing any types of abstract. The research question, objectives, purpose, findings, method, discussion and the conclusion all are represented in the abstract part. Therefore it is seen that if any reader read the abstract of any dissertation, then the reader can understand the parameters which contain the particular dissertation.

There exists some function of any abstract. A writer has to maintain this function. Otherwise, it is not acceptable to the reader and effort of the writer will be smashed. The first function is abstract must explain the title of any dissertation. An explanation must be interesting enough to the reader because if a reader is not getting any types of interest about the topic, then they do not go through the whole paper. Quality always maintains by the writer; the best quality writing must give particular importance to the dissertation. The second function is it save the time of the people who have not enough time to read out the whole paper. Therefore it saves the time of the managers and the scientists who are not read out the whole research paper. The abstract also gives scope to understand the topic of the dissertation easily. Therefore it is seen this one section has multiple functions. It introduces the whole topic. Therefore, it is said that the abstract is the representative of any types of the dissertation.

Abstract has a definite place, time and length and it is essential to know before writing any abstract. An abstract must be five per cent of any dissertation length. Therefore the word count of any abstract is judged as per the word count of any dissertation. The whole abstract must contains only one whole page. The length of an abstract is restricted for the quick view of the readers. Generally abstract has a particular place where it is written. It is must be placed after the title page but before the table of contents of any dissertation. The grammar of every part of the dissertation is also different. Therefore it is also remembered. Abstract always write in present tense or present perfect tense. The writer of any abstract must add some acronyms in the abstract part. Therefore it is seen that if any writer maintains and follow up those criteria, then the quality of the abstract must be world class and interesting. The resource is not included in this section because this is the writer’s own opinion and it contains about the research process and the results.

The abstract is written for any types of research paper and report. As it is the overview of the complete dissertation, it is why sometimes the abstract is said as a synopsis. The abstract provides us with the commentary from the starting of the dissertation to the end of the dissertation. The abstract it must be written in impersonal ways. Sometimes an abstract contains the hypothesis if it is mentioned in the dissertation.

There exist some ways which lead students to write an excellent quality abstract. It is considered to be the quick view of the whole dissertation which might help in order to understand the entire dissertation over a short period. First of all, students had to go through the entire dissertation and highlighted the critical information and the keywords. Literature review, methodology, finding and analysis chapter is the most important chapter for writing the abstract of any dissertation. Sometimes introduction and the conclusion is also going through by some sincere students. After that, the critical information and the keywords are compiled together to make a single paragraph. Extra word and unnecessary words have to be deleted. Therefore after discussing the abstract, it is concluded that the abstract generally represents the whole dissertation. The dissertation is judged after reading an abstract of it. Abstract represents the methods, research results and also the overview of another chapter. Sometimes students have to deal with more than two or three dissertations or research paper. Then they have faced various confusions about all research papers. This type of confusion has occurred when the students want to make any empirical studies. Empirical studies contain many research papers and journals. Then students only read the abstract of the paper and make an idea over the particular topic. Therefore it is said that the abstract has multiple function and beneficial effects. Nowadays peoples are, and they believe to save their time not to do any types of hard working. Students are also included in this list. So that they only read out the abstract and judged about a particular research paper or journal. In this way they select their require journals or research paper.

Abstract discuss the topic of the dissertation. However, it does not reflect shadow on the depth of the topic. Therefore it is recommended that sometimes abstract not be enough about to know the topic. That is why readers always must read the whole topic before judging any research paper. Abstract has only helpful for the people who want to give their reviews and the scientist who find out the best paper among much research paper. Therefore it is said that abstract is not the judged topic. Especially students who are willing to represent good work and earn good knowledge have to go through the whole research paper. Abstract help a student to know about any topic, but the depth knowledge is not earned by reading only the abstract section.

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How To Write a Dissertation Discussion Chapter Or Section

Here are top tips on how to write a dissertation discussion chapter :

Every dissertation has several chapters, and different chapters discussed the different sides of a particular topic. The chapters are the introduction, literature review, methodology, discussion and the findings and the conclusion. Here the representing topic is about the discussion chapter of the dissertation. This is based on the findings and the methodology chapter. Forgetting an excellent quality over this chapter the researcher has to be notified and go through the chapter methodology and the findings.

The methodology will be discussed the research method, and the findings also follow the methodology chapter. Before writing the discussion chapter, the research methods and the data which is collected by the findings are read by the researcher. The data which are collected by the author may be in qualitative or may be in quantitative. Therefore discussion is written by the data and the research methods. It is the theoretical discussion for the findings of the data and the research methods also. There exist mainly two types of methods. One is primary data collection, and other is secondary data collection methods.

Therefore it is seen that it is very much essential to know about the data collection methods otherwise the discussion part is incomplete if there is no mention of the methods. Findings chapter has contained different types of data whether it contains the various chart, graph, and statistical data or sometimes contains various types of survey or interview questions. Sometimes the data are calculated by the SPSS or any other mathematical procedure. Therefore it is seen that the discussion chapter is discussed about the data which contains the information gathered by the research. A discussion is always written in a theoretical manner. The description is allowed in this section.

There exist various criteria which are maintained to write a discussion chapter. Various types of journals and books are taken here as a reference, and that is why the citation of those authors are done here. Discussion chapter is the intermediate results chapter. Research is done before starting every dissertation. Every research has a particular result which is considered as the outcomes of that particular research. Therefore this section is considered as a result chapter. The chapter contains various results and also the critical analysis of those particular results. Critical analysis means for some examination of why the results is that and all. Therefore the results of the dissertation are discussed in this section.

There exist various methods to write a dissertation. Dissertation never contains any definition because the general definition is available in any search engine. The reference for every single topic must be contained in the dissertation. That means the source of the dissertation must be given. The quality of the dissertation must be world class when there exist some smart art and some tables.  The appendix is must be included in the dissertation as per the requirement of the topic. Therefore it is said that if someone maintains this rule the quality of the dissertation must be excellent.

A discussion is written according to the authors’ opinion that means what is the research result as per the researcher not as per any others opinion. The discussion section gives scope to demonstrate how the research is going on and about the experiences. There exist various methods by which discussion is written. In some short length dissertation, the discussion and the findings chapter are the same chapters. However, in long length dissertation, the discussion chapter and the findings chapter are separately written. Basically when talking about the chapter discussion then the matter of findings chapter is already come out.

In a dissertation, the most rewarding and the new section is a discussion of the findings. Therefore the author has to write down this section in a logical manner. Generally, readers prefer the three main components in this section. These three components are a description of the findings, an analysis of the findings and the synthesis of the findings. The discussion section is about the answers to research questions. Researcher how to detect out the answer to the research question and what is the conclusion according to the results of the findings are discussed here. Quality of dissertation decides about the position of the researcher in the field of his educational platform. The structure of the discussion chapter must be following up the writer’s mindset. If the writer chooses a theme and continues the entire dissertation on a single type of theme, then the discussion is also based on an underlying theme. However, sometimes the discussion chapter is written according to the research questions. However, it is must require to said that when this section is written as per the question answer basis then this discussion is more preferred to the readers and it has excellent quality.

Critical thinking and expressing it on your discussion section is quite tricky. However, critical analysis is the most critical thing in this chapter. Without the presentation of critical thinking, the chapter is not stand up in a quality opposition. Therefore this point it must be remembered by the researcher. The chapter must contain the subsection. Thorough written without any section can be tedious. Therefore it is said that this section must contain the subheadings or subsection as per the requirement of the chapter. Subheadings are numbers as per the chapter number. For example when any section of literature review chapter is written, then the sub-points are as per 2.1, 2.1.1 and so on because the literature review chapter is considered to be in second place in any types of a dissertation.

One more important point which is must remember while writing the discussion chapter is a writer must relate to the previous chapter with the discussion chapter. Literature review and the findings are the two most important chapters which are essential to relate to this chapter. Therefore it is said that the discussion chapter is to represent the research result and critically analyse the results also.

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Writing A Dissertation Introduction Chapter


Are you writing a dissertation introduction chapter? Here are few good tips for you. A dissertation is a type of long project which is written for a university degree or diploma. Sometimes it is said that a dissertation is a type of thesis or monograph. It is written in final year in any types of academic course. Therefore the requirement is in the final year, and by this, the knowledge and the overview of a student are judged. Now it can be said that discussion on any topic is accessible to find out in many types of the search engine because in the present situation human beings are dependent on various types of search engines. From how to polish a shoe to how to write a dissertation all are available in the search engines. However, the fundamental difference is that professors want to see that how much a student can analyse any topic over the existing theory and how much they can modify the existing theory on their perspective. Sometimes they want to see that whether the students only have book base knowledge or some other ability to analyse the theories over their views. Therefore it is different from any types of book module.

Generally, the chapter named introduction is one of the essential modules for any types of project or thesis. This chapter grows the interest into readers mind that whether the content is attractive or not. Readers always overview the introduction chapter to find out that this content is fruitful; for him or not and that is why this chapter must contain the actual and substantial facts over the subjects. Nowadays people are suffering from lack of time; therefore in this short schedule, it is very much necessary to present an attraction in the first look. In any dissertation, introduction works as the first look of this thesis.

Generally, an introductory chapter contains a different section named as research aim, research background, research question, rationale, problem statement, a structure of the research and the conclusion. All are the general parts of any dissertation. However, sometimes there is the demand for some other criteria. According to the criteria in the introduction chapter there sometimes present the background of any company. Students who have created the dissertation sometimes take any particular company for the practical perspective. In that case, the background of the company is also represented in the first chapter.

Many writers follow various sequences of the points. However, there exists a general sequence and introduction chapter follow this common sequence. First of all, the introduction is represent, and then the background of the study, rationale, statement of the problem, research aim, research objectives, research question, the structure of the research and then a conclusion is represented in the chapter.

Now the discussion topic is how to write an introduction to the first chapter. Her first chapter is considered as the introduction chapter. The introduction section is discussed what the contents included in the first chapter are. Every dissertation has a specific subject, and this introduction section is discussed briefly about the topic. After that, which points are included in the chapter are mentioned. Again said that some time for practical perspective various kinds of companies from various industry is considered, therefore which company is taken is also mentioned in this part.

After the introduction, the second point is related to the background of the study. Various students choose various topics to write a dissertation. This section discussed for which reason this topic is chosen and what is to be the importance of that topic, for choosing it as the dissertation. This section critically analyses the reason for which the topic is chosen. The overall importance is discussed here not in very much depth because the depth and descriptive analysis are done in the second chapter of a dissertation named Literature review.

The third point is the rationale of the study. Rationale section is quite interesting because this one section contains four different topics. The different topics are related to a topic. The subject which is chosen for the dissertation has some issues.  That is why it is chosen for the topic of the dissertation. Therefore, the rationale part discusses those issues, the present condition of the issues or why this is an issue right now and actually why it becomes an issue, all are discussed in this section. One another part of the section is why the research is going on that particular topic, or it is also said that what the research sheds light.

After that section problem statement is discussed. This section discusses the main problem of particular issues.

Next topic is discussed about the research aim. Research aim contains the mission of the investigation. That means by doing this dissertation which mission is fulfilled or which information is detected are represented in this section.

Research objectives are the next topic which is represented in the chapter. This section is always written in future tense because in the research what we will do is discussed here. The objective section has unique criteria in writing style. All objectives are starting with ‘to’. There exists a generally four objectives, and each objective informs what is done in the dissertation research. Objectives give us knowledge about what to find out in the particular research, what to analyse in the research, what is the evaluating result of the research and what is the recommendation about the research. Next section is a research question. This section is related to the research objective section because according to the objectives research question is written. After that structure of the research is done and it is represented as a smart. It is an overview of the whole chapter in a graphical form. This helps to understand the whole graph of the chapter.

The last section is the conclusion which is concluded after the analysing of the topic subject. The conclusion contains the decision which is finding out from chapter one. This section is also helpful to know the final result of the chapter. The overall brief description of the introduction chapter is discussed here. Hope these tips were good enough to help you in writing a dissertation introduction chapter. 

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How to Write a Literature Review for Dissertation


What is a Literature Review?

The aim of writing a literature review within a dissertation is to traverse and look at important published materials relating to the research questions and to the topic of the dissertation. This is to prove the awareness and comprehension on how the research of dissertation would fit into the general arena of study and how it would expand on the research prevailing. One could likewise refer back to the review of literature while clarifying the research findings in the dissertation’s discussion section. One has to talk about the topic of the dissertation with the instructor and be in agreement on the path the review of the literature would take. When one is sure about what particular issues or areas the review of the literature would include, one needs to begin by making a search for pertinent reading material.

Reasons for Writing a Review of Literature

Doing a review of literature is a way of showing the knowledge of the author with regard to a specific area of study, inclusive of the important phenomenon, variables, theories and vocabulary, and its history and methods. Doing a literature review additionally advises the research student on the research groups and researchers who are influential in the area. At last, with certain changes, the review of literature is a “publishable and legitimate document of scholarly interest”.

Aside from the above explanations behind writing a review of the literature (i.e., identifying a research family, a document which is publishable, a proof of knowledge), the scientific purposes behind carrying out a literature review are many. The review of the literature assumes a part in: delimiting the issue of research, looking for new inquiry lines, maintaining a strategic distance from approaches which are not beneficial, attaining methodological bits of knowledge, recognizing suggestions for more research in future, and looking for support on grounded theory. There are extra explanations for literature review such as: recognizing what has been carried out from what should be done, finding essential variables important to the theme, synthesizing and attaining another new point of view, finding connections between practices and ideas, setting up the context of the issue or theme, rationalizing the importance of the issue, improving and attaining the subject vocabulary, having an understanding of the subject’s structure, linking theory and ideas to applications, making an identification of the important methodologies and techniques of research which have been used, and putting research in an authentic setting to show ease with the best advancements. Another reason for drafting a literature review not specified above is that in the discussion part of the dissertation, it gives a structure to relate new findings to past findings. Without setting up the condition of the past research, it is difficult to state about how the new research progresses over the past research.

Structure of the Literature Review in Dissertation

Instead of working as an independent chapter, the chapter on the review of literature ought to be connected to the other sections in the dissertation – specifically, in the dissertation there ought to be a clear reference to the review of literature in the discussion chapter. While stating the research findings, one has to link what has been identified back to the literature stated in the chapter on the literature review to state their importance. Therefore, one might need going back and stating the changes or making additions to the review of literature section while writing the dissertation’s discussion chapter. For instance, one could have the understanding that some studies are not any more pertinent or that more proof is required to clarify some of the findings.

The important aspect of the review of the literature would be the analysis and discussion of the literature. One ought to likewise incorporate an introduction to the main part of the discussion and a conclusion which does a summary of the important discussion points. This is an outline of how one might structure the review of the literature. This is an overview in general and you always ought to follow the particular guidance provided in the handbook of the dissertation.

Present the review of literature by: Making an outline of the broader setting of the literature review –how or where does the topic of dissertation fit in to the broader area of the subject; Making an outline of the literature review’s scope – arenas discussed, sources; Making an outline on why and how one has chosen the materials to be reviewed; Offering a method of reasoning – i.e. objectives and reasons – for making a review of the literature related to the particular topic.

literature review for dissertationCreate the principle discussion of the review of literature by: Assessing and analysing the topics, issues, recommendations (conclusions, authors opinions and suggestions) witnessed in the literature; Synthesising (joining or drawing together) basic common propositions, issues, topics, to allow you to make contemplated inferences; Contrasting and comparing outcomes of the research, propositions, issues and themes.

Make a conclusion of the review of literature chapter by: Concluding how the review of literature has met the goals stated in the introduction; Synthesizing and summarizing the fundamental themes or issues identified with the research questions and area of the topic as stated in the literature; Recommending further areas of study; Outlining the importance and effects of the recognized issues or themes for the topic of dissertation and study arena; Identifying how and why your own particular research would handle the gaps recognized – giving a rationale for the topic of dissertation chosen.

In the dissertation, to let cross-referencing of information or the chapters, it is essential to structure the sections or chapters of the dissertation by making use of the numbered sub-headings and headings. This would be significant while making a reference back towards the studies in particular sections of the review of literature while stating the findings.

What is to be Avoided While Writing a Review of Literature

Listing of literature or individual research without assessing, evaluating and discussing each bit of the literature; Discussing every individual bit of literature or research independently instead of being in the setting – one need to draw literature and research together by common issues or themes and on the basis of the study type; Stating what is being stated in the literature as opposed to assessing and analysing – one ought to show and apply important assessment and analysis all through the review of literature; Not connecting the literature to the research questions and to the topic of dissertation – the selected literature need to be suitable for the topic of dissertation and be assessed and analysed within the context of the particular area of research; Not connecting the review of literature to the research findings stated in the chapter on discussion. 

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Key Tips on How To Write a Flawless Dissertation


Majority of the researchers generally begin with immense interest in writing a dissertation, however, the dissertation could turn out to be very scary and could lead them to desperation. You will see that the long process of research, planning, and writing is the most lengthy and utmost complicated task you may have been ever assigned to. Even if the task appears to be immense, the significant factor is to initiate from the start and accomplish every phase one by one. We shall help you in taking the right path. You could see below some tips on writing a flawless dissertation if you are struggling to write a master’s or PhD dissertation / thesis.

1) Ensure that your institution’s PhD requirements are being met

Supervisors and PhD students usually make presumptions without verifying. A supervisor once told her student that PhD should be approximately three hundred pages long for which he wrote three hundred pages. The supervisor forgot to mention about the double-spaced lines, and the student wrote single-spaced. Removing superfluous words is an annoying problem.

2) Perspective has to be kept

Every candidate desires that the dissertation or thesis they have written need to be amazing. However, the crucial task will evolve afterwards. Consider your dissertation like an apprenticeship. It is highly unlikely that your colleagues would go through your work and assess you on that basis. Possibly they are much interested in the papers, (chapters, books, articles etc) that are drawn from the dissertation.

3) Manage the time

You will require an approximate timeline for completing the process of writing. You should plan to finish the dissertation chapter wise. When you perceive of having achievable goals, it would become effortless in writing the dissertation without being affected by its complexity and length.

4) Writing the dissertation

Every chapter should be worked upon when it is still relevant or fresh in your mind with regard to the current activities going on that time, however, later, you could come back and make it into a coherent and consistent written work, rewriting the parts, when essential. While going ahead, make a rough copy so that it could be polished once you tend to become more attentive towards the writing. We are giving you below some tips in writing the various sections of the dissertation.

a) Introduction: The introduction chapter should be written last. Writing together the introductory and concluding sections would help in linking the various parts of the dissertation. Hence it should be done at the final stages of your writing. While writing the first chapter, you need to add a background and a statement pertaining to the issue. You would then state the objective of the research study and the research problem. Further, you would have to offer a clear explanation of the terms which are associated with the study. Then state your supposition and anticipation of the last results.

b) Literature Review: In this dissertation chapter, you need to review the entire process of research and the most significant acknowledgements you have come across. You can read here more about how to write a literature review for a dissertation.

c) Methodology: This segment of the dissertation concentrates on the manner in which you identified the resources and the methods of execution of the findings. In case you are writing a dissertation which includes qualitative methods, you need to mention about the settings, research questions, data collection, participants and analysis of data. But, in contrast, when you are writing a quantitative dissertation, you would concentrate on the hypotheses and research questions, and on information regarding the instrumentation, sample and population, data collection, and data analysis. You can read here more about writing a dissertation methodology and methodology structure in depth.

How to write a dissertation

d) Findings: This part is the most significant in the entire process of your dissertation writing, since it displays your intellectual capability. You would have to restate the research questions and state the results you identified; by mentioning about the path they have led you. To state otherwise, you would have to provide answers to the questions.

d) Conclusion: The final chapter of your dissertation would have summary of the research study along with a brief account of the findings. But remember to make it clear as to how the findings would make influences in the academic world, and how they would apply it into practice. Towards the final end of this conclusion chapter, you need to be including a section for “Future Research Recommendations”and in this section, you would suggest further research, which would make further clarification on the issue. You have to state as to why you are recommending this research and the shape it is supposed to take.

f) Bibliography: Using recommended citation styles for your areas of study ensures in including all of the sources used at the time of the research and writing stages. All references in the dissertation need crosschecking with the bibliography prior to your submission. 

5) Begin editing and proofreading

This is the time to take a sigh of relief after finishing the first draft of the dissertation. But never plan for editing just after completion of writing the final sentence of the dissertation. Stay away from the dissertation for some time. You need to ensure to have a gap of at least few days between the stages of writing and editing. As soon as you start your work again, majority of the flaws would be observed by you. Both, proofreading and editing are significantly different from each other: editing emphasizes the essence, whereas proofreading puts focus on the shape of the dissertation. Dealing with the essence of the dissertation is required to be done before doing the proofreading of the dissertation or else it would be wrong to do the proofreading and then begin to remove the unwanted portions and include additional information. Efforts should be made to have the rational linkage between every argument. In case you find any gap in the details written, you need to bridge the gap using the facts that were gathered during the research phase. It is possible that you were carried away with varied explanations at certain points. Ensure to minimize the quantum of such areas and make clarification about them to the maximum possible. Clarity and quality are the issues that matter, not the quantity. At the end, you should go through the work several times and get hold of all the style, grammar and spelling mistakes that has been made. Go through every word, every sentence, and refer a thesaurus or dictionary in case there are doubts.

6) Plagiarism

Quote correctly in case one is quoting from books, journal articles, etc, and you should do paraphrasing wherever required. This should be done with extreme care, as using references are vital and helps you avoiding plagiarism.

7) Take feedback from your supervisor

You need to take the feedback from your PhD supervisor to ensure that all the parts are being written together in a proper way.

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How to Write a Dissertation Proposal


What is a Dissertation Proposal?

Seeking assistance as to how to write a dissertation proposal? The dissertation proposal is an imperative first step in drafting your dissertation for a Ph.D. course or a master’s course. The dissertation proposal should be unique and it creates the phase for research and helps in forming a reasonable plan for your last phase of your dissertation project. The dissertation proposal is essentially a depiction of the following: What the dissertation is about; Possible questions which you would be analysing; Few references to the background of theory; Methods of research you would use (non-empirical or empirical); Potential results of the dissertation project. The dissertation proposal resembles the list of chapters for research, and would enable you to clarify what you plan to analyze, and generally, how you expect to approach the gathering and assessment of the data collected. You would not have to do an exact planning of each and everything since the topic of your dissertation might slightly vary during the span of the research, yet generally drafting the proposal would enable you to better recognize the path for the dissertation project. When one has decided on the topic for writing the dissertation proposal, it is important to make sure that it is both suitable to the field of study, and it is important to narrow it down sufficiently so that it could be finished before the course ends. The dissertation proposal would enable you to characterize and decide both these, and it would likewise enable your supervisors to make sure that you are being given advice by the best person to enable you to finish your research.

Drafting a dissertation proposal, regardless of whether it is not a necessity, is worth doing it. One needs to present the dissertation proposal to the instructor and receive important feedback. One could approach the instructor for direction on the style and tone of the dissertation proposal. One has to be adaptable and receptive, demonstrating an eagerness to adjust the thoughts and methods as the research directs. State in the proposal on what one is confidently planning to do, and embracing a balanced perspective, recommending that one has precisely thought about the ideal method for doing the research. You should not be arrogant, but firm; be adaptable but rather not weak! Ensure that you would follow the grammar rules in the dissertation proposal. Have consistency on the tense of the dissertation proposal. Several of the dissertation proposals are drafted making use of the future tense: ‘I would be making use of surveys. etc’. Check with the instructor for confirmation on this.

Structure of Dissertation Proposal

The dissertation proposal’s structure would rely on your particular course prerequisites. A few courses might show that the goals and aims of your dissertation research have to be in a different section in the dissertation or research proposal, or that you don’t have to include a review of literature or methodology section.

Once you have an understanding on what are the sections needed or is not required to include, at that point it might enable to center your written work to split the dissertation proposal into different headings and handle each section independently. One might likewise need to consider inclusion of a title. Composing a title for the dissertation proposal would enable one to make sure that the title is sufficiently narrow, and aid in keeping the written work concentrated and on the title which is being selected.

The dissertation proposal ought to have various important features, irrespective of the structure of the proposal: an introductory section, methodology, objectives and aims, review of the literature, and the research constraints.


The introduction would categorically state the central question of research and offer background on the subject and contextually be relating it to any wider issues encompassing it.

Objectives and Aims

The dissertation proposal ought to likewise incorporate the goals and aims of the research. Ensure to state what the research intends to carry out, and what results you foresee. You might likewise need to state what the important goals of the research are or to state otherwise, how you intend to meet those accomplishments and results.


The dissertation methodology would separate what sources you intend to use for the research that you plan to do, and what type of data is to be gathered from it-either qualitative or quantitative. You might likewise need to incorporate how you would analyze the data collected and consider the possibility of any predisposition there might be in the methods chosen. Contingent upon the details which your particular course needs, you might likewise need to clarify why the approaches chosen for collecting data are more suitable to the research when compared to others.


Dissertation proposal

Literature Review

The review of the literature would make a listing of the materials and books which have been used for doing the research. This is the place you can list the books and other materials which you used and which provided you a foundation on your theme or had research completed earlier which you refer to in your own particular studies. It is additionally a decent place to show how the research interfaces with the earlier research studies, and how the methods used might vary from or be expanding upon those being used by other research scholars. While it is essential to give enough data of the materials to prove that you have perused and comprehended them, keep in mind to incorporate the assessment of their importance to the research that you do.

Research Constraints

Finally, you would likewise have to include the research constraints. Several topics would have wide connections to various bigger and more unpredictable issues, so by clearly expressing the requirements of the research, you are showing your comprehension and affirmation of these bigger issues, and the part they play by concentrating the research on only one area or part of the theme.


In case you have to outline on how you intend to deal with the research, consider including a certain type of concept map or Gantt chart. It is important to create a timeline which is reasonable.


Check if you have to write a reference list, and in case if it is required, roughly show what number of references is required to be listed.

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A guide to write an effective methodology for your dissertation


What is Methodology

Methodology is a vital part of the thesis or dissertation. But this is not exactly similar to ‘methods’. The methodology explains the wide philosophical support to your selected research methods, involving if the quantitative or qualitative methods or a combination of the duo are being applied by you, and with what reason. Methodology is the part of your dissertation that states the way your research was performed, the sources of your data, and the kind of data collection procedures that were used by you, etc. Usually, somebody going through your methodology need to get adequate idea so as to design methods much seem to be identical to those you had applied to collect your data; however it need not involve any interviews, reviews and questionnaires, which have been applied to carry out your research. The methodology part of the dissertation is mainly for stating the reason as to why you opted to apply these specific methods to collect the data. 


Dissertation methodology structure

Structure of Methodology

Dissertation methodology pertains to including the details, which helps the readers to understand precisely as to what your aim was, how you achieved your goal, and why you chose the process. These are some of the important aspects that should be kept in mind while communicating with the readers of your work. You should not involve yourself too much in listing the sources and methods and forget about including how and why they had been relevant for the specific research. It may sound superfluous, but you should do your research into the research methods since it will be helpful in identifying the kind of research methods, and the various kinds of research methods which would be the best for attaining the best possible cohesive outcomes from the dissertation project. This would be of benefit while writing your dissertation methodology. You can confidently write instead of guessing whether the documents had been written at a specific period, re-printed later, or while serializing the contents in a book form. The kind of research done by you would decide the amount of details needed to be included in the description part of your methods.

In case, for the research, you have prepared a sequence of the primary sources of research, like surveys, interviews, and more direct accounts obtained either by you personally or by someone else working at the time of the testing, then you have to include additional details in particularly splitting the steps that were taken for generating the sources as well as employing these sources in carrying out your research. When secondary sources are being used in writing the dissertation methodology, or literature having the data gathered by other researchers, then it is not required to include much detail in the explanation of your methods, even though you might like to be more comprehensive in the description of your study.

You have to be clear regarding the weaknesses and strengths of the approach you have chosen. You also need to be clear on how you intend to deal with them. While going through this strategy, you should also keep in mind not to overlook common issues like sample selection or regarding how to make the findings to be pertinent. Only after that, you should decide to proceed towards discussing the research questions, and make a plan about dealing with each one of them. At this point, you should set forth the research methods chosen, inclusive of the theoretical basis, and the necessary literature for underpinning them. You need to have a precise understanding as to whether the chosen method is an experimental one or is a ‘tried and tested’ one and the level of reliability one could put on the outcome. In the discussion section, you would also have to repeat this again. Your research might prefer to do a test on the research methods, to have an understanding as to if they are working in particular situations. The methodology need to clarify the weaknesses associated with the approach you have chosen and you need to plan to prevent the most severe perils, probably by triangulating the specified data with other types of methods, or your perception about the irrelevancy of the weakness. Lastly, you need to summarize the research methods, the supporting approach, and perception of the important challenges that would be faced by you in the research. These are some of the areas that you would need to revisit in the discussion.

The methodology can be constituted by using so many approaches, and the below given headings are written for providing you an improved picture regarding what is to be included, and also about the ways you may wish to state the findings:

Research Outline: to reemphasise the theme of the research.  

Research Design: The ways, the study has been set up, and what each of the part plan to attain.

Data Collection: What method you have made use of for collecting data (interviews, surveys, questionnaires, trials & so on). Never forget to mention the size of the sample and also the efforts to remove prejudice.

Data Analysis: Lastly, in the perspective of the research, what implications the data has? Whether the outcomes reach some conclusion? Do not forget to include what kind of data (primary or secondary data, quantitative or qualitative) has been worked upon, and how any of the variables affect the research outcomes.


Your success depends on the methodology, along with the precise methods that you have chosen in your research. The amount of time spent on this section ensures that you get it right and add value to your efforts. You should extract the best possible information from the resources accessible to you, for instance, discuss in detail regarding the course of action with your guide who might be able to advice whether the approach you have chosen has serious flaws, and has alternative ways of expressing them. As the dissertation methodology is an account of the research that you conduct, you should try to write it or at the minimum to draft it – while you collect the data. In case you are on a master’s course or a PhD course, then you might complete researching much before you initiate writing. However, it does not hurt to begin working on it much earlier. In this way, you could be on top of what is required to be done. Making an analysis of the research methods might assist you in finding any mistakes in the process of data collection or sources followed by their interpretation.

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Numerous admissions guides would contend that the personal statement is the most critical part of the confirmation frame. Yet, it’s an exceptionally troublesome thing to get right. Many students fail to write good personal statement even when they deserve admission in their favourite college or university. The psychology behind writing a good personal statement, as suggested UK’s famous personal statement help service is:

  1. Ability to impart plainly what you convey to individual and expert open doors: Your central goal ought to be a solitary sentence that states what you are here to do. You ought to submit it to memory and have the capacity to present it at gunpoint. Having this reasonable concise statement accessible freely permits you to unmistakably tell others what you can accomplish for them. In some cases you just have around 10 seconds to get the consideration. This ought to do it.
  2. Genuine expressions: It’s anything but difficult to read personal statements which start, ‘Henry Ford said History is bunk’, and you realize that this originates from the 6th frame mentor and you realize this is a piece of the equation. What we need to see is a veritable articulation of your chronicled advantages – and the best personal statement would state: ‘I first got to be occupied with history when I addressed my granddad about what he did in Burma over a glass of Scotch’. To the admission team, this would be great. Specially when you are writing a psychology personal statement for UCAS application
  3. Maximize your talents: maximize your abilities: Most of us have common blessings and gifts that we are unobtrusive about. By and large our central goal calls to utilize these abilities and requires that we utilize them for the advantage of others. Gifts develop with utilize. Mention them in your personal statements.
  4. Significance in your life: We drudge away at work and home each day, yet what does everything indicate toward the end of our lives? For the individuals who have set aside the opportunity to look for their own central goal, their activities have importance and essentialness. Toward the end of our lives, we as a whole long to have the capacity to state, “I did what I was made to do. I added to this world in a noteworthy way.”
  5. Talking about identity: The personal statement is turning out to be increasingly essential from the competitors since they have such a large number of candidates to browse. Admission team is very interested in hearing about the candidate. Admission team can see your academic performance; they don’t really need to know too much about that. The team assumes you want to do dentistry, otherwise you wouldn’t be applying to the program; so talk about yourself, a little bit about the work experience that you have, the things that you do. Demonstrate that you’re a student that is worried for society everywhere, not only the budgetary advantages that dentistry can offer. Specially in the case of nursing personal statement when you are less sure how to write one seek professional help.
  6. When the student communicates his/her mission through words and expressions in the personal statement, it will naturally attract those who are reading it.

How Daily Reading and Writing Habits Can Improve Essay Writing Skills


Specialists say enhancing writing and reading aptitudes must not be ignored. Writing and reading improvement are interwoven in learning. The physical demonstration of writing letters and words improves our capacity to read. The correlative relationship amongst writing and reading proceeds long after these early endeavors. Hence, here are some reasons that can help you comprehend the significance that reading and writing play in your essay writing skills as well also also improve overall writing skills including academic and general content writing:

  • Ability to convey: Reading and writing are imperative not just in light of the fact that they empower you to enter the universe of the academia community, additionally in light of the fact that they likewise permit him or her to speak with other individuals; get to be both more amiable; and accomplish a more intuitive way of life. Reading and writing are two critical turning points throughout your life that at last decide the degree of your capacity to speak with others and succeed in the realm of the world of education. And when you interact well, you can surely communicate your thoughts through your essay
  • Good vocabulary establishes the framework for good essay writing: The most ideal approach to enhance your own particular information of words is to urge yourself to read more, and turn upward the implications of words you don’t get it. Playing straightforward word diversions or even scrabble can significantly contribute towards building your vocabulary. Experiencing your homework to check for spelling and linguistic mistakes is additionally helpful, as it will strengthen what is getting blunder a few or wrong in your written work
  • The best are additionally sharp paper readers: Reading all the time is a simple approach to begin building up your written work abilities. Enhance your reading material. Extend your points of view to more difficult material than you normally read, and pay consideration on sentence structure, word decision, and how the material streams.
  • The best motivation to create essay writing as a day by day propensity is on the grounds that it’s an awesome ability to have: Being able to intelligently get your thoughts onto essay in an intriguing and connecting way is no little accomplishment. It takes a considerable measure of practice. Yet, once you get the hang of it, you begin to perceive how it helps you speak with others in a successful way.
  • Reading and writing compels you to find out about the English dialect, whether you need to or not: You’re going to take in more words on your trip, whether it’s by implication through relevant cases or straightforwardly from a dictionary. You begin to assemble a device belt of your best words, thoughts, and expressions that you can use whenever. This allows you a greater amount of to have a genuine effect with your words, on essay as well as orally also. Still indoubt, go for a professional in your local area.

 • When you read and compose day by day, you build up a greater sense of self: Even when you’re not expounding on yourself, you find out about how you see things or what your standpoint is on sure subjects which will be incredible for your essay writing or college and university assignment writing and you will be free from any assignment help that you might wish to seek otherwise.